The incredible 'alien' skulls discovered in a Mexican cemetery
Find is new evidence of cranial deformation, where skulls were tightly bound in wooden supports to alter their shapeUnique head shape was used to differentiate different social classes
19:54 GMT, 18 December 2012
It is an astonishing image that could have come straight from the plot of a Ridley Scott movie.
Archaeologists in Mexico today revealed the astonishing skull of a person suffering from a cranial disfiguration.
Believed to be 1,000 years old, the find was made near the small Mexican village of Onavas.
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One of the 13 individuals with cranial deformation discovered in the cemetery in Mexico
The find is eerily similar to the Alien in Ridley Scott's film of the same name
The find is believed to be the first in the region showing the practice of binding a skull to change its shape.
'Cranial deformation in Mesoamerican cultures was used to differentiate
one social group from another and for ritual purposes,' said
archaeologist Cristina Garcia Moreno, director of the research project.
The burial ground consists of 25 individuals; 13 have intentional cranial deformation and five also have dental mutilation.
'This unique find shows a mix of traditions from different groups of northern Mexico,' said Moreno.
The use of ornaments made from sea shells from the Gulf of California
had never been found before in Sonoran territory and this discovery
extends the limit of influence of Mesoamerican peoples farther north
than has been previously recorded,” she said in a video posted to YouTube.
of the individuals were wearing ornaments such as as bangles, nose
rings, earrings, pendants made from shells found in the Gulf of
California, and one burial contained a turtle shell, carefully placed
over the abdomen, according to Past Horizons.
The burial ground contained 25 individuals, and 13 of them have what researchers describe as 'intentional cranial deformation
Dental disfigurements were also found is several of the skulls, which was believed to be a rite of passage
Garcia Moreno has been conducting work on behalf of Arizona State University with approval of the National Institute of Anthropology and History (INAH).
The dental mutiliations discovered are believed to be a rite of passage.
'The dental mutilation in cultures such as the Nayarit was seen as a rite of passage into adolescence,' said Moreno.
'This is confirmed by the findings at the Sonora cemetery where the five bodies with dental mutilation are all over 12 years in age.'
SKULL BINDING THROUGH HISTORY
Painting by Paul Kane, showing a Chinookan child in the process of having its head flattened, and an adult after the process
Also known as head binding or head flattening, the practice was usually done to signify group affiliation or as a way to demonstrate social status.
The earliest written record of cranial deformation dates to 400 BC in Hippocrates' description of the Macrocephali or Long-heads, although it is believed the Neanderthals may also have used the technique.
It was typically carried out on infants as their skulls could be easily moulded.
To create the effect, wooden boards were applied to the skull with pressure, typically starting at the age of about one month, and then for the next six months.
However, the method was extremely risky, and in the latest find, researchers believe the fact many of those with disfigured skulls died young show just how dangerous it was.
Three drawings of methods that were used by Maya peoples to shape a child's head
However, she continued,'In this case, you cannot recognise any social differences because all the burials seem to have the same characteristics.
'Nor have we been able to determine why some were wearing ornaments and others not, or why of the 25 skeletons only one was female. “
The team say the number of infants and pre-pubescents could show the high risks involved in the cranial deformation, which can kill from the excessive force squeezing the skull.
The find has been dated to the year 943 CE from samples taken from one of the individuals.
Many of the skulls showed signs of cranial or dental mutiliation
Experts at the site, where 25 bodies were discovered
Believed to be 1,000 years old, the find was made near the small Mexican village of Onava